Loudness and annoyance of disturbing sounds

Åsa Skagerstrand, Susanne Köbler, and Stefan Stenfelt. Loudness and annoyance of disturbing sounds – perception by normal hearing subjectsInternational Journal Of Audiology. Published online: 09 May 2017.

Objective: Sounds in the daily environment may cause loudness and annoyance. The present study investigated the perception of loudness and annoyance for eight different sounds present in a daily sound environment and at nine different levels varying by ±20 dB around the recorded level. The outcomes were related to tests of participants’ auditory and cognitive abilities.

Design: The participants undertook auditory and working memory (WM) tests prior to ratings of everyday sounds previously shown to be disturbing for persons with hearing impairment (hearing aid users).

Study sample: Twenty-one participants aged between 24 and 71 years, with normal hearing threshold levels.

Results: Both perceived loudness and annoyance were primarily driven by the sound level. Sounds emitted from paper were rated as having greater loudness and being more annoying than the other sound sources at the same sound level. Auditory and cognitive abilities did not influence the perception of loudness and annoyance.

Conclusions: Loudness and annoyance ratings were mainly driven by sound level. Expectations of a sound seemed to influence the assessment of loudness and annoyance while auditory performance and WM capacity showed no influence on the ratings.

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Epidemiology and risk factors for tinnitus after leisure noise exposure

Deegeest, S. et al.  (2017) International Journal of Audiology . 56(2) pp. 121-129


Objective: Young people regularly expose themselves to leisure noise and are at risk of acquiring tinnitus. This study examined the prevalence of leisure noise-induced tinnitus among Flemish young adults as well as the relation with sociodemographic factors, health-related variables and attitudes and beliefs towards noise.

Conclusions: Tinnitus is observed frequently in young adults. Results also indicate that persons with chronic tinnitus were exposed to a higher noise dose during their lives. Longitudinal studies may be useful to evaluate whether the experience of chronic tinnitus has led to behavioural changes. These findings further underpin the importance of educating youth about the risks of leisure noise exposure.

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Tinnitus and leisure noise

Warwick Williams & Lyndal Carter  Tinnitus and leisure noise  International Journal Of Audiology. Published online: 16 Nov 2016

sound-1781569_1280Objective: To study the relationship of life-time noise exposure and experience of tinnitus.

Design: Audiometric measures included otoscopy, pure tone air- and bone-conduction hearing threshold levels (HTL) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Participants completed questionnaires including demographic information, past hearing health, history of participation in loud leisure activities, and attitudes to noise.

Study sample: A representative sample (1435) of the young (11–35 years old) Australian population.

Results: Of the sample, 63% indicated they experienced tinnitus in some form. There was no correlation of tinnitus experience with HTL or OAE amplitudes. Although median octave band HTLs for those who experienced tinnitus “all the time” were slightly higher for those who did not, neither group exhibited HTLs outside clinically-normal values. Of those who experienced tinnitus a direct correlation was found between frequency of experience of tinnitus and increasing cumulative, life-time noise exposure. Those who experienced tinnitus were more likely to report noticing deterioration in their hearing ability over time and to report difficulty hearing in quiet and/or noisy situations.

Conclusions: Experience of tinnitus was found throughout this young population but not associated with HTLs or variation in OAE amplitudes. Males experienced ‘permanent’ tinnitus at significantly greater rate than females.