Increased risk of cholesteatoma among patients with allergic rhinitis

This study used a nationwide population-based claims database to investigate the hypothesis that AR may increase the risk of cholesteatoma | The Laryngoscope

Data from Taiwan’s Longitudinal Health Insurance Database were analyzed to compile the following: 1) 15,953 patients newly diagnosed with AR between 1997 and 2000, and 2) a comparison cohort of 63,812 matched non-AR enrollees (with a ratio of 1 to 4). Each patient was followed for 10 years to identify cases in which cholesteatoma subsequently developed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the cholesteatoma-free survival rate, and the log-rank test was used to compare survival curves. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs).

Among the 79,765 patients enrolled in this study, 45 (159,364 person-years) from the AR cohort and 88 (638,130 person-years) from the comparison cohort were diagnosed with cholesteatoma during the follow-up period (incidence rates 0.28 and 0.14 of 1,000 person-years, respectively). Patients with AR were more likely to develop cholesteatoma compared to those without AR. Patients with AR presented a significantly lower 10-year cholesteatoma-free survival rate than did those in the comparison group .

This is the first study to demonstrate a link between AR and the development of cholesteatoma. We suggest that clinicians keep this association in mind and carefully investigate the possibility of development of cholesteatoma among patients with AR.

Full reference: Kuo, C-L. et al. (2017) Increased risk of cholesteatoma among patients with allergic rhinitis: A nationwide investigation. The Laryngoscope. Published online: 3 August 2017


Bilateral congenital cholesteatoma: Surgical treatment and considerations.

A multicenter study regarding surgical management of bilateral congenital cholesteatoma (BCC) and underline the importance of endoscopes in the management of this condition | International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

In BCC, hearing preservation is more crucial than in unilateral cases. The endoscopic approach allows complete removal of cholesteatoma via a minimally invasive technique offering low residual disease rates while preserving the normal physiology of the middle ear and possibly the ossicular chain.

From 2002 to November 2016, six patients were identified with bilateral congenital cholesteatoma and included in this study. Pre-operative assessments, surgical treatments and outcomes were collected and described.

The median age at presentation was 4 years (range 2-7 years). A microscopic post auricular tympanoplasty was performed in two ears, four underwent a canal wall up mastoidectomy procedure and in the other six a transcanal endoscopic approach (TEA) was used. No intra- or post-operative complications were observed in any patients. The mean follow up period was 54.5 months.

When both ears are involved with congenital cholesteatoma, it is particularly important to use a minimally invasive technique that preserves normal ossicular and mastoid structure and function whenever possible. In many cases this can be achieved with TEA, even in young children. In addition the endoscope allows good surgical control of cholesteatoma removal from hidden recesses.

Full reference: Marchioni, D. et al. (2017) Bilateral congenital cholesteatoma: Surgical treatment and considerations. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. Vol. 99. (no. 08) pp. 146–151

MRI for residual and recurrent cholesteatoma

Diagnosis and management of recurrent or residual cholesteatoma can be problematic. Diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been used for follow-up of such lesions

Objective of review: Evaluate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the diagnosis of recurrent or residual cholesteatoma.


Results: A total of 575 studies were identified of which 27 met the inclusion criteria. These covered 727 patient episodes. For EPI studies: sensitivity (sd) 71.82 (24.5), specificity (sd) 89.36 (13.4), PPV (sd) 93.36 (8.1) and NPV (sd) 73.36 (15.8). For non-EPI studies: sensitivity 89.79 (12.1), specificity (sd) 94.57 (5.8), PPV (sd) 96.50 (4.2) and NPV 80.46 (20.2). Improved sensitivity of non-EPI sequences reached significance (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted MRI is both sensitive and specific for the detection of recurrent or residual cholesteatoma following ear surgery. Non-EPI techniques are superior to EPI techniques.

Full reference: Muzaffar, J. et al. (2017) Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for residual and recurrent cholesteatoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Otolaryngology. 42(3) pp. 536–543

Endoscopic transcanal approach to the middle ear for management of pediatric cholesteatoma

Outcomes for endoscopic ear surgery (EES) for pediatric cholesteatoma at a tertiary pediatric hospital.

Methods: Retrospective case series of 65 pediatric cholesteatoma cases in 38 ears. Subgrouping based on cholesteatoma type and EES type. Surgical findings, outcomes, and demographic data were evaluated.

Results: Endoscopes were used in 65 pediatric cholesteatoma cases in 38 primary ears (34 patients), followed for an average of 2.6 years (9 months to 4.6 years). The endoscope was used as the primary visualization tool in 31 (81.6%) ears (EES 2 or 3), and as an adjunct to the microscope in seven ears (EES 1). Twenty-two (57.9%) ears and 35 (53.4%) cases were transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (EES 3 or TEES). Overall, there was recurrence in five (13.2%) ears and residual in four (10.5%) ears. Cholesteatoma was acquired in 27 ears, with average age 10.9 years; and congenital in 11 ears, with average age 3.8 years. Surgical time was longer for acquired cases (226 vs. 154 minutes). Hearing outcomes were comparable for both cholesteatoma types. Residual disease was seen in three (11.1%) acquired ears and one (9.1%) congenital ear. Overall, the lowest rates of recurrent and residual disease were seen in EES 3 cases, and relatively low rates in EES 2 and 3 ears, including four (12.9%) recurrences and two (6.5%) ears with residual disease.

Conclusion: The endoscopes are a viable tool for resection of pediatric cholesteatoma and provide excellent visualization of the middle ear and associated recesses.

Full reference: Ghadersohi, S. et al. (2017) Endoscopic transcanal approach to the middle ear for management of pediatric cholesteatoma. The Laryngoscope. Published online: 23 May 2017

Incidence, 10-year recidivism rate and prognostic factors for cholesteatoma

Britze, A. et al. (2017) The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 131(4) pp. 319-328

Cholesteatoma patients have a high risk of recurrence with complications, and knowledge exchange is a prerequisite for improving treatment. This study aimed to apply appropriate statistics to provide meaningful and transferable results from cholesteatoma surgery, to highlight independent prognostic factors, and to assess the incidence rate.

The recidivism rate is influenced by several factors that are important to observe, both in the clinic and when comparing results from surgery.

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Surgical Treatment of External Auditory Canal Cholesteatoma – Ten Years of Clinical Experience

Ho, K-Y. et al. The Journal of International Advanced Otology. Published online: 9 March 2017.

Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations of external auditory canal (EAC) cholesteatoma and evaluate the surgical outcomes of reconstruction using an inferior pedicled soft-tissue periosteum flap.

Conclusions: Bony canaloplasty and obliteration with an inferior pedicled soft-tissue periosteum flap is a reliable procedure for EAC cholesteatoma.

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Endoscopy-Assisted Ear Surgery for Treatment of Chronic Otitis Media

Ulku, H. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. Published online: March 2017

11574-2The objective of this study was to analyze the results of endoscopy-assisted ear surgery for the treatment of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, adhesion, or retraction pockets.

Oto-endoscopic eradication of the cholesteatoma or epithelial tissue from hidden area after the all visible cholesteatoma removal by oto-microscope improves the quality of surgery, significantly decreases the frequency of the canal wall-down procedure and posterior tympanotomy requirements with acceptable residual cholesteatoma rates.

Read the full abstract here